Barton Ford Haynes, MD

Professor of Medicine
Frederic M. Hanes Distinguished Professor of Medicine
Director of the Human Vaccine Institute in the Department of Medicine
Professor of Immunology
Member of the Duke Cancer Institute
Member of the Duke Human Vaccine Institute
Campus mail 106 Research Drive, MSRBII 4090, Durham, NC 27710
Phone (919) 684-5384
Email address

The Haynes lab is studying host innate and adaptive immune responses to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and influenza in order to find the enabling technology to make preventive vaccines against these three major infectious diseases.

Mucosal Immune Responses in Acute HIV Infection

The Haynes lab is working to determine why broadly neutralizing antibodies are rarely made in acute HIV infection (AHI), currently a major obstacle in the development of an HIV vaccine. The lab has developed a novel approach to define the B cell repertories in AHI in order to find neutralizing antibodies against the virus. This approach uses linear Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain gene expression cassettes to express Ig V(H) and V(L) genes isolated from sorted single B cells as IgG1 antibody without a cloning step. This strategy was used to characterize the Ig repertoire of plasma cells/plasmablasts in AHI and to produce recombinant influenza mAbs from sorted single human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination.

The lab is also studying the earliest effect HIV-1 has on B cells. Analyzing blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) during acute HIV infection, they have found that as early as 17 days after transmission HIV-1 induces B cell class switching and 47 days after transmission, HIV-1 causes considerable damage to GALT germinal centers. They found that in AHI, GALT memory B cells induce polyclonal B cell activation due to the presence of HIV-1-specific, influenza-specific, and autoreactive antibodies. The team concluded from this study that early induction of polyclonal B cell differentiation, along with follicular damage and germinal center loss, may explain why HIV-1 induced antibody responses decline rapidly during acute HIV infection and why plasma antibody responses are delayed.

The lab is also looking at ways of generating long-lived memory B cell responses to HIV infection, another major hurdle in the development of a successful HIV-1 vaccine. The lab has found that in HIV-1 gp120 envelope vaccination and chronic HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 envelope induces predominantly short-lived memory B cell-dependent plasma antibodies.

Immunogen Design

To overcome the high level of genetic diversity in HIV-1 envelope genes, the Haynes lab is developing strategies to induce antibodies that cross-react with multiple strains of HIV. The lab has designed immunogens based on transmitted founder Envs and mosaic consensus Envs in collaboration with Dr. Bette Korber at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These immunogens are designed to induce antibodies that cross-react with a multiple subtype Env glycoproteins. The goal is to determine if cross-reactive mAbs to highly conserved epitopes in HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins can be induced. The team recently characterized a panel of ten mAbs that reacted with varying breadth to subtypes A, B, C, D, F, G, CRF01_AE, and a highly divergent SIVcpzUS Env protein. Two of the mAbs cross-reacted with all tested Env proteins, including SIVcpzUS Env and bound Env proteins with high affinity.

Mucosal Immune Responses in TB and Influenza

The Haynes lab is helping to develop novel approaches to TB vaccine development. The current therapeutic vaccine for TB, called BCG, may prevent complications from TB in children, but offers little protection against infection and disease in adults. The lab is focused on using live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants as vaccine candidates and is currently evaluating this approach in non-human primate studies. As part of the DHVI Influenza program, they are studying the B cell response to influenza in order to generate a “universal” flu vaccine. They are currently trying to express more highly conserved influenza antigens in recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors in order to elicit robust T cell and antibody responses to those antigens.

Education and Training

  • M.D., Baylor University, 1973


Tuyishime, Marina, Carolina Garrido, Shalini Jha, Anthony DeVico, Barton Haynes, David Margolis, and Guido Ferrari. “Recognition and Elimination of HIV-1-infected Cells by ADCC-mediating mAbs for Prevention and Treatment of HIV-1 Infection.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:126–126. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Williams, LaTonya, Matthew Zirui Tay, Xiaoying Shen, Sheetal Sawant, Lindsay Dahora, Nicole Yates, David Easterhoff, et al. “Delayed and Repetitive Boosting of RV144 Vaccinees Improves Antiviral Immunity Associated With Correlates of HIV-1 Infection Risk.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:88–88. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Frahm, Nicole, Andrew Fiore-Gartland, Harman Malhi, Lindsey R. Baden, Stephen R. Walsh, Kristen W. Cohen, Marnie Elizaga, et al. “Increased Breadth of T-cell Responses After Mosaic HIV Vaccination in Humans (HVTN 106).” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:31–31. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Andrabi, Raiees, Jesper Pallesen, Joel Allen, Ge Song, Jinsong Zhang, Natalia de Val, Gavin Gegg, et al. “Chimpanzee SIV Envelope-derived Trimer Guides an Immunofocused HIV Cross-neutralizing Ab Response in V2-apex bnAb UCA Expressing Knock-in Mice.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:60–60. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Astronomo, Rena, Katharine Westerberg, Lamar Fleming, Greg Mize, Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Stephen DeRosa, Christina Ochsenbauer, et al. “Neutralization Potency Can Account for the Majority of Antibody-mediated Protection Observed in ex vivo Vaginal Explant Models of Early HIV Infection.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:302–302. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Blasi, Maria, Erich Baker, Elizabeth Brunner, Celia Labranche, David Montefiori, Kevin Saunders, Anthony Moody, et al. “Therapeutic Vaccination With a Combination of IDLV-SIV-Gag and IDLV-PGT121 Results in Prolonged Virus Control in Chronically SHIV-infected Macaques.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:50–50. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Verkoczy, Laurent, Chuancang Jiang, Raiees Andrabi, Jinsong Zhang, Amanda Newman, Devin Sok, Ge Song, et al. “Mechanistic Insights Into Vaccine Induction of V2 Apex-directed, Heterologous Tier 2 Neutralizing Responses in CH103 UCA Knock-in Mice.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:110–110. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Peachman, Kristina, David Easterhoff, Siriwat Akapirat, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pittisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Sanjay Phogat, et al. “Prolonged Intervals Between Boosts Induces High Magnitude Transient V2-specific Functional Antibodies That Inhibit the Binding of V2 to alpha 4 beta 7 Integrin.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:127–127. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Crooks, Ema, Samantha Grimley, Michelle Cully, Keiko Osawa, Gillian Dekkers, Kevin Saunders, Sebastian Ramisch, et al. “Glycoengineering HIV-1 Env Creates "Supercharged" and "Hybrid" Glycans to Increase Neutralizing Antibody Potency, Breadth and Saturation.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:113–113. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.


Kimpel, Janine, C Anika Bresk, Tamara Hofer, Sarah Wilmschen, Marina Krismer, Anja Beierfuss, Gregory Effantin, et al. “HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Induced by Native-like Envelope Trimers Incorporated Into a Rhabdoviral Vector Vaccine.” In Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 34:324–324. MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018.