Richard Frothingham, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine
Assistant Professor in Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Member of the Duke Human Vaccine Institute
Campus mail 2424 Erwin Rd, Hock Plaza Room 9089, Durham, NC 27710
Phone (919) 684-5455
Email address richard.frothingham@duke.edu

Dr. Frothingham is the principal investigator of a research laboratory which studies Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium avium, a closely related bacterium causing serious infections in AIDS patients. We are pursuing two current projects.

The first project aims to develop vaccines against M. avium and M. tuberculosis. We inject mice with candidate plasmid DNA vaccines which produce bacterial proteins in mouse muscle. We use a variety of DNA adjuvants to modify the immune response. We hope to use DNA vaccination to protect against new infections and to modify the course of existing infections. We also hope to identify correlates of vaccine-induced protective immunity.

The second project uses variations in bacterial DNA sequences to identify species and strains. Dr. Frothingham was part of a team of four Duke scientists who used DNA sequence analysis to identify the cause of Whipple's disease. He also identified used DNA sequence to identify a particular group of M. avium strains which cause disseminated infections in AIDS patients. We recently developed a new tuberculosis typing method using variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats. We are applying this new typing method in national and international collaborations.

Dr. Frothingham does not currently conduct clinical trials.

Special areas of expertise include tuberculosis, mycobacteria, strain differentiation, DNA vaccination, and pyrazinamide.

Key words: tuberculosis, mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, DNA vaccines, tandem repeat DNA, pyrazinamide, mouse

Education and Training

  • Medicine and Pediatrics Resident, Medicine, University of Rochester, 1982 - 1986
  • M.D., Duke University, 1981

Publications

Korioth-Schmitz, Birgit, Casey C. Perley, Jaimie D. Sixsmith, Eva M. Click, Sunhee Lee, Norman L. Letvin, and Richard Frothingham. “Rhesus immune responses to SIV Gag expressed by recombinant BCG vectors are independent from pre-existing mycobacterial immunity..” Vaccine 33, no. 42 (October 13, 2015): 5715–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.07.010.

PMID
26192357
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Hart, Bryan E., Rose Asrican, So-Yon Lim, Jaimie D. Sixsmith, Regy Lukose, Sommer J. R. Souther, Swati D. G. Rayasam, et al. “Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors..” Clin Vaccine Immunol 22, no. 7 (July 2015): 726–41. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00075-15.

PMID
25924766
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Sixsmith, Jaimie D., Michael W. Panas, Sunhee Lee, Geoffrey O. Gillard, KeriAnn White, Michelle A. Lifton, Harikrishnan Balachandran, et al. “Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vectors Prime for Strong Cellular Responses to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Gag in Rhesus Macaques.” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 21, no. 10 (October 1, 2014): 1385–95. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00324.

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Sixsmith, Jaimie D., Michael W. Panas, Sunhee Lee, Geoffrey O. Gillard, KeriAnn White, Michelle A. Lifton, Harikrishnan Balachandran, et al. “Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vectors prime for strong cellular responses to simian immunodeficiency virus gag in rhesus macaques..” Clin Vaccine Immunol 21, no. 10 (October 2014): 1385–95. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00324-14.

PMID
25080550
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Perley, C. C., M. Frahm, E. M. Click, K. M. Dobos, G. Ferrari, J. E. Stout, and R. Frothingham. “The human antibody response to the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.” Plos One 9, no. 6 (June 11, 2014). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098938.

Full Text

Roberts, Lydia M., Shraddha Tuladhar, Shaun P. Steele, Kristina J. Riebe, Ching-Ju Chen, R Ian Cumming, Sarah Seay, et al. “Identification of early interactions between Francisella and the host..” Infect Immun 82, no. 6 (June 2014): 2504–10. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01654-13.

PMID
24686053
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Smith, Kristen L Jurcic, Divey Saini, Svetoslav Bardarov, Michelle Larsen, Richard Frothingham, Neel R. Gandhi, William R. Jacobs, A Willem Sturm, and Sunhee Lee. “Reduced virulence of an extensively drug-resistant outbreak strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model..” Plos One 9, no. 4 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094953.

PMID
24733050
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Perley, Casey C., Marc Frahm, Eva M. Click, Karen M. Dobos, Guido Ferrari, Jason E. Stout, and Richard Frothingham. “The human antibody response to the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis..” Plos One 9, no. 2 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098938.

PMID
24918450
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Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M., Tony W. Ng, Shalu S. Kharkwal, Leandro J. Carreño, Alison J. Johnson, Shajo Kunnath-Velayudhan, Zheng Liu, et al. “Improving Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guèrin as a vaccine delivery vector for viral antigens by incorporation of glycolipid activators of NKT cells..” Plos One 9, no. 9 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108383.

PMID
25255287
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Holmer, S. M., K. S. Evans, Y. G. Asfaw, D. Saini, W. A. Schell, J. G. Ledford, R. Frothingham, J. R. Wright, G. D. Sempowski, and J. R. Perfect. “The Impact of Surfactant Protein D, Interleukin-5, and Eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis..” Infect Immun, November 25, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00855-13.

PMID
24478083
Full Text

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